Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important component of indoor air as a photolabile precursor to hydroxyl radicals and has direct health effects. HONO concentrations are typically higher indoors than outdoors, although indoor concentrations have proved challenging to predict using box models. In this study, time-resolved measurements of HONO and NO2 in a residence showed that [HONO] varied relatively weakly over contiguous periods of hours, while [NO2] fluctuated in association with changes in outdoor [NO2]. Perturbation experiments were performed in which indoor HONO was depleted or elevated and were interpreted using a two-compartment box model. To reproduce the measurements, [HONO] had to be predicted using persistent source and sink processes that do not directly involve NO2, suggesting that HONO was in equilibrium with indoor surfaces. Production of gas phase HONO directly from conversion of NO2 on surfaces had a weak influence on indoor [HONO] during the time of the perturbations. Highly similar temporal responses of HONO and semi-volatile carboxylic acids to ventilation of the residence along with the detection of nitrite on indoor surfaces support the concept that indoor HONO mixing ratios are controlled strongly by gas-surface equilibrium.